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M W Finkbeiner puts rover over FEMA control disc


Technology, experience and expertise for the detection and mapping of physical resources and features over and under the ground and 

ocean, combined with


 Professional Forestry and Licensed Land Surveying  (NY & CT) by


Michael W. Finkbeiner, Yale Master of Forest Science 1971

(Click for Contact Info, Experience & Qualifications) or PDF 


or email me at tel: 203 661-3897

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Precision GPS surveying, Robotic Surveying, and Bathymetrics are performed with paired Topcon Hiper+ rovers Real-time high precision positions fixes to the rovers are broadcast by internet  from our base station.


Daily Earth Image 


HOT TOPICS and Special Pages:


  FEMA News 2017 Renewal of National Flood Insurance -

Current Flood Insurance Bills Pending in Congress

The Gillibrand Renewal Bill

The Menendez Reform Bill

Fairfield County CT Rate Maps 2013


Flooding and Discharge

Byram Valley Flood Hazard Mitigation


Greenwich Harbor


Greenwich CT Emergency Warning System and Event Management


Greenwich CT Planning & Zoning Issues   RE-Regressive Tax


Affordable Housing  and the R-6 Zone Two-Family Permitted Use


Greenwich Cell Phone Tower to School setback 1500 feet 



 Connecticut Office

6 Oak Street West - Suite E

Greenwich, CT 06830

Tel 203-661-3897

Fax 203 681-2899

Precision GPS/Glonass Reference Base Station

Millimeter Location by NGS OPUS Project

for 2 meter mount ARP Javad Regent Reference Antenna

 REF FRAME:        NAD_83(2011) (2010.0000)                 IGS08 (2014.8735)
 X:                1356342.841 m    0.001 m          1356341.999 m    0.001 m
 Y:               -4625779.679 m    0.002 m         -4625778.239 m    0.002 m
 Z:                4162465.091 m    0.002 m          4162465.054 m    0.002 m
 LAT:           41 00 02.33560      0.002 m       41 00 02.36913      0.002 m
 E LON:        286 20 30.73127      0.001 m      286 20 30.71404      0.001 m
 W LON:         73 39 29.26873      0.001 m       73 39 29.28596      0.001 m
 EL HGT:               -19.031 m    0.002 m              -20.277 m    0.002 m
 ORTHO HGT:             11.698 m    0.015 m  (H = h - N WHERE N = GEOID12A HGT)

                  UTM (Zone 18)         SPC (0600 CT)
 NORTHING (Y)      4539696.173 m         171383.324 m
 EASTING (X)        612853.655 m         228395.067 m
 CONVERGENCE        0.88045001 deg      -0.60214432 deg
 POINT SCALE        0.99975675           1.00002612
 COMBINED FACTOR    0.99975973           1.00002911



Hydrographic Surveys:


The launchable Zodiac with its "mother ship base", hosting 5 Hertz RTK GPS broadcast by internet and CDMA cell-phone modem connection to the NY State DOT Real-Time Network in Albany.  In Connecticut, our office base station transmits GPS & Glonass Satellite signals each second to the Topcon-based Superior Network in Milldale,Ct, providing a private service alternative covering Connecticut and Long Island Sound. The Zodiac's rover unit is mounted over the 200-KHz narrow -cone depth sounder, with xyz results viewed in real-time by Carlson SurvCE data-collection software.


By a custom-programmed Earth Image application, these readings can be imported in real-time to an AutoCAD site drawing or GIS ortho photos of the project.


Real time dredge depths and volumes can be monitored for daily progress results. 

Launchable Zodiac Hydro Explorer






Marina and Mooring Field Coordination 

The JFK Marina, on the Hudson River in Yonkers, is an example of urban waterfront redevelopment requiring tight coordination of user interests, resources, and regulatory constraints.

The bronze disc (pictured left), occupied for RTK broadcast, was set for the purpose of augmenting the Yonkers Geodetic Control network, specifically to aid others in the implementation of the Master Plan.

First-order elevations were transferred to the new disc from NGS KU1795, and a series of static GPS observation sessions were submitted to National Geodetic Survey for analysis and processing.

A combination of concurrent static sessions on HARN monuments (High Accuracy Reference Network) were processed with CORS stations RINEX files (Continuously Operating Reference Stations) at NY DOT locations and the Lamont Earth Sciences Lab on the Palisades in the photo background.

Tidal datums were obtained from tide disc KU1630 at the old Yonkers Ferry Terminal across the Hudson River at Alpine, NJ.  The resultant solutions were submitted in draft form to the National Geodetic Survey OPUS program for checking, certification and inclusion in the national control database.

Regulatory lines and elevations were then established for permit coordination purposes, and observation values transferred to the limits of the project, which include seawall rehabilitation, mooring field establishment, and in-water docking facilities.

A modification to federal navigation regulatory lines in the Hudson River was submitted to the Coast Guard and published in the Federal Register.


Waterfront construction compliance surveys.


Reconstruction of jetties, groins and rip-rap peninsulas, subject to Army Corp and State DEP/DEC Regulatory Permits.  As-builts are performed on an on-going basis, with pre- and post-construction conditions monitored for compliance horizontally and vertically.  Robotic total station technology (Leica 1203) is used for precise results.




Regulatory Mapping:


Surface features are mapped by GPS, at times using lasers to precisely locate features.   For tree mapping assignments, a LaserTech Criterion 400 Forestry Laser permits optical fork measurement of tree diameter.  Our custom-designed software and data dictionaries allow collection of attributes such as species, size and condition for inclusion in municipal and private GIS databases or tree inventories in a variety of formats, including ArcView, DXF, and MS-Access .  


Inter-tidal zone mapping, here pictured (left) on Great South Bay, Long Island, delineates the critical regulatory interface between spartina and phragmites species, with accurate establishments of baselines and benchmarks in the prevailing State Plane Coordinate Grid and Datum.


GIS attributes can be added to the data dictionary, which is customized for each project.


Set and Coordinate Custom Project Controls.  

By occupying a First-Order USGS control disc, we transfer control values to your project site with centimeter precision. 

We also submit our observation session for quality evaluation and inclusion in the National Database of control monumentation.

This First Order Control is made available to the public with our high-accuracy tie-in to the

Continuously Operating Reference Station (CORS)

and our participation in

 OPUS: Online Positioning User Service


This Greenwich primary control is viewable at:

Rapid Static Positioning by paired rovers